This is a minimal access surgery of the abdomen in which intraabdominal surgical pathologies are dealt with. A rigid endoscope known as a laparoscope is introduced into the peritoneal cavity through a small opening made in the abdominal wall. Carbon dioxide gas is introduced inside to inflate the peritoneal cavity to enable visualization of the intraabdominal contents. Further ports are made as required to enable the introduction of the working instruments and the surgery is carried out.

The  surgeries commonly performed by this method are cholecystectomy, appendicectomy and diagnostic laparoscopy.

Advantages of laparoscopic surgery:

  • Decrease in wound size
  • Decreased post operative pain
  • Improved mobility

Limitations of laparoscopic surgery:

  • This surgery is done almost by remote access, without the tactile sensation of open surgery.
  • There can be complications and internal injuries during introduction of the instruments.
  • Control of bleeding intraoperatively may be a bit difficult.
  • The surgery depends on the hand-eye coordination of the surgeon.
  • Extraction of large specimens from inside the abdominal cavity may present a challenge.