A hernia is the abnormal protrusion of part of the contents of the abdominal cavity through a weakness in the abdominal wall.

Commonly, they present as lumps which pop out especially on coughing, laughing, straining or lifting heavy weights. The lump typically settles, only to recur later. After some time, it is found that the lump does not decrease at all and it may also start to become painful. This is the stage where the hernia has started to become complicated. If neglected at this stage, further, the blood supply to the contents inside the hernia can get compromised and lead to strangulation. The hernia has reached a stage of dire emergency now and the patient has to undergo emergency surgery.

The common herniae are as follows: